Water Sources

Water Sources

Mekorot supplies approx. 80% of Israel's annual water consumption needs for all sectors. The group supplies approx. NIS 1.5 billion of water annually to about 4,800 customers and to approx. 7 million end users throughout the country, through the operation of approx. 3,000 water facilities and over 12,000 km of pipelines. By virtue of diplomatic accords signed by the Government of Israel, Mekorot also supplies water every year to the Palestinian Authority and Jordan.


In order to meet the needs of households, agriculture and industry in Israel, Mekorot produces water from nature and from alternative sources.

Natural water sources:

Sources of surface water – Surface water is flowing or standing water, located at ground level, and is used for pumping drinking water. Surface water sources in Israel consist of the Sea of Galilee and a number of springs.
Groundwater – There are two main focal points of groundwater reservoirs Israel: the mountain aquifer and the coastal aquifer. Regeneration of these sources depends on rainwater that seeps into the ground and accumulates in underground reservoirs. In addition, there are also aquifers with brackish water which are mainly used for agriculture and desalination in the Negev and Arava.

 Water source  Total annual supply (as of 2012)
 The Sea of Galilee  Approx. 193 million cubic meters of drinking water
 Coastal Aquifer, mountain aquifer, and approx. 550 wells  440 million cubic meters of drinking wa
 Natural springs  Approx. 25 million cubic meters of drinking water
 Surface water + stormwater  Approx. 97 million cubic meters of drinking water
 Desalinated water  Approx. 353 million cubic meters of drinking water




Water sources/water resources – Main alternatives:

Desalinated seawater – This is water which, after desalination and the necessary treatment, can be an invaluable source of water for various uses, especially for drinking. For this reason Mekorot invests huge resources in developing water technologies and water desalination plants.

Desalination of brackish water – The source of this water is underground, in natural reservoirs, which are located deep inside the bowels of the earth, such as       the mountain aquifer and the coastal aquifer. Mekorot pumps the water and desalinates it to the appropriate quality for household or agriculture use. In remote areas in Israel, like the Arava and the Negev, desalinating brackish water from local reservoirs is the main source of water supply for agriculture-based communities.
Effluents – This water from wastewater that has undergone treatment and is therefore fit for reuse, especially for agriculture and industry. Water recycling facilitates significant savings for the Israeli water industry and it allows water that is more suitable for drinking (potable water) to be diverted to households.